Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Potential and Chemical Composition of the Methanolic Extracts of Spirogyra setiformis and Navicula species

Main Article Content

W. O. Okunowo et al.


The present study investigated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities as well as the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts of Spirogyra setiformis and Navicula spp. found in Nigerian waters. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanolic extracts of the algae were determined against 7 clinical isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans) using the broth dilution method. The antioxidant activity of the algae extract was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide and reducing power assays. The volatile constituents of the extracts were also analysed using GC–MS. The results revealed that the S. setiformis extract inhibited all the clinical isolates except S. typhi and C. albicans while Navicula spp. had inhibitory effects on all the test isolates. The MIC values of the algae extracts varied between 2.0 mg/L and 10.0 mg/L. Both extracts showed potent free radical scavenging activities evidenced in DPPH, nitric oxide and reducing power assays. A total of 16 and 11 volatile compounds were obtained from S. setiformis and Navicula spp., respectively. The major component in S. setiformis was 11,14,17-methyl ester eicosatrienoic and trans-geranyl geraniol in Navicula spp. These findings suggest that these indigenous algae species could be good sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

Article Details

How to Cite
Okunowo et al., W. (2018). Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Potential and Chemical Composition of the Methanolic Extracts of Spirogyra setiformis and Navicula species. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 17(1), 15-20. Retrieved from


Abdel-Aal, E. I., Haroon, A. M. and Mofeed, J. (2015) Successive solvent extraction and GC–MS analysis for the evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of the filamentous green alga Spirogyra longata. Egypt. J. Aquat. Res. 41: 233–246.
Affan, A., Karawita, R., Jeon, Y. J. and Lee, J. B. (2007) Growth characteristics and antioxidant properties of the benthic diatom Navicula incerta (bacillariophyceae) from Jeju Island, Korea. J. Phycol. 43: 823–832.
Alisi, C. and Onyeze G. (2008) Nitric oxide scavenging ability of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata (Linn.). Afr. J. Biochem. Res. 2: 145–150
Burits, M. and Bucar, F. (2000) Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytother. Res. 14: 323–328.
Cardozo, K. H., Guaratini, T., Barros, M. P., Falcão, V. R., Tonon, A. P., Lopes, N. P., Campos, S., Torres, M. A., Souza, A. O. and Colepicolo, P. (2007) Metabolites from algae with economical impact. Comp. Biochem. Phys. C 146: 60–78.
Chowdhury, M. M. H., Kubra, K., Hossain, M. B., Mustafa, M. G., Jainab, T., Karim, M. R. and Mehedy, M. E. (2015) Screening of antibacterial and antifungal activity of freshwater and marine algae as a prominent natural antibiotic available in Bangladesh. Int. J. Pharmacol. 11: 828–833.
Cornish, M. L. and Garbary, D. J. (2010) Antioxidants from macroalgae: potential applications in human health and nutrition. Algae 25: 155–171.
Cuendet, M., Hostettmann, K., Potterat, O. and Dyatmiko, W. (1997) Iridoid glucosides with free radical scavenging properties from Fagraea blumei. Helv. Chim. Acta 80: 1144–1152.
Ely, R., Supriya, T. and Naik, C. (2004) Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 309: 121–127.
Findlay, J. A. and Patil, A. D. (1984) Antibacterial constituents of the diatom Navicula delognei. J. Nat. Prod. 47: 815–818.
Hemalatha, A., Girija, K., Parthiban, C., Saranya, C. and Anantharaman, P. (2013) Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of a marine diatom Navicula clavata and green microalgae Chlorella marina and Dunaliella salina. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 4: 151–157.
Ibañez, E., Herrero, M., Mendiola, J. A. and Castro-Puyana, M. (2012) Extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds with health benefits from marine resources: macro and micro algae, cyanobacteria, and invertebrates, Marine Bioactive Compounds, Springer, p. 55–98.
Inoue, Y., Hada, T., Shiraishi, A., Hirose, K., Hamashima, H. and Kobayashi, S. (2005) Biphasic effects of geranyl geraniol, teprenone and phytol on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Ch. 49: 1770–1774.
Junthip, R., Amornlerdpison, D. and Chimsook, T. (2013) Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Spirogyra spp. Adv. Mat Res. 699: 693–697.
Kamenarska, Z. G., Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S. D., Nikolova, C., Kujumgiev, A. I., Stefanov, K. L. and Popov, S. S. (2000) Volatile components of the freshwater algae Spirogyra and Mougeotia. Z. Naturforsch C 55: 495–499.
Kang, N., Lee, J. H., Lee, W., Ko, J.-Y., Kim, E.-A., Kim, J.-S., Heu, M.-S., Kim, G. H. and Jeon, Y.-J. (2015) Gallic acid isolated from Spirogyra spp. improves cardiovascular disease through a vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effect. Environ. Toxicol. Phar. 39: 764–772.
Khanavi, M., Nabavi, M., Sadati, N., Shams, A. M., Sohrabipour, J., Nabavi, S. M. B., Ghaeli, P. and Ostad, S. N. (2010) Cytotoxic activity of some marine brown algae against cancer cell lines. Biol. Res. 43: 31–37.
Kuda, T., Tsunekawa, M., Goto, H. and Araki, Y. (2005) Antioxidant properties of four edible algae harvested in the Noto Peninsula, Japan. J. Food Compos. Anal. 18: 625–633.
Kumar, J., Dhar, P., Tayade, A. B., Gupta, D., Chaurasia, O. P., Upreti, D. K., Toppo, K., Arora, R., Suseela, M. and Srivastava, R. B. (2015) Chemical composition and biological activities of trans-Himalayan alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve. PloS One 10: e0118255.
Liu, G.-L., Li, Y., Chi, Z. and Chi, Z.-M. (2011) Purification and characterization of κ-carrageenase from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas porphyrae for hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan. Process Biochem. 46: 265–271.
Mbosso, E. J. T., Ngouela, S., Nguedia, J. C. A., Beng, V. P., Rohmer, M. and Tsamo, E. (2010) In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and compounds of some selected medicinal plants from Cameroon. J. Ethnopharmacol. 128: 476–481.
Munir, N., Sharif, N., Naz, S. and Manzoor, F. (2013) Algae: a potent antioxidant source. Sky J. Microbiol. Res. 1: 22–31.
Okunowo, W., Afolabi, L., Umunnakwe, I., Oyedeji, A. and Ilesanmi, J. (2016) GC–MS analysis and antimicrobial properties of methanolic extracts of the marine algae Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros spp. Biokemistri 28(1): 24–33.
Pradhan, J., Das, S. and Das, B. K. (2014) Antibacterial activity of freshwater microalgae: A review. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmaco. 8: 809–818.
Rodríguez-Meizoso, I., Jaime, L., Santoyo, S., Señoráns, F. J., Cifuentes, A. and Ibáñez, E. (2010) Subcritical water extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga. J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 51: 456–463.
Salvador, N., Garreta, A. G., Lavelli, L. and Ribera, M. A. (2007) Antimicrobial activity of Iberian macroalgae. Scientia Marina 71(1): 101–113.
Seenivasan, R., Indu, H., Archana, G. and Geetha, S. (2010) The antibacterial activity of some marine algae from south east coast of India. J. Pharm. Res. 8: 1907–1912.
Sushanth, V. and Rajashekhar, M. (2013) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in the four species of marine microalgae isolated from arabian sea of Karnataka coast. Indian J. Geo-Mar. Sci. 44: 1–7.
Thumvijit, T., Inboot, W., Peerapornpisal, Y., Amornlerdpison, D. and Wongpoomchai, R. (2013) The antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Ktzing. J. Med. Plants Res. 7: 2494–2500.
Togashi, N., Inoue, Y., Hamashima, H. and Takano, A. (2008) Effects of two terpene alcohols on the antibacterial activity and the mode of action of farnesol against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 13: 3069–3076.